How dancing has improved the function of an aging brain


Antique dancers’ brains benefit from dancing antique Greek dances

bootcamp2015-small 2


(Written in 2015, first published 17 August, 2017 and updated 29 June, 2019.) In which I perform a scientific analysis of the health benefits of dancing for an aging brain: three cognitive skills have improved, age-related changes prove a challenge, and the over-all effect is joy joy joy.


I belong to the Crows Feet Dance Collective. We rehearse for 90 minutes every week and every year we perform a brand new contemporary dance show. That means every rehearsal is a learning session.

Any sort of dancing must surely be good for you physically, improving balance, flexibility, strength, and the cardio-vascular system. And let’s take it for granted that dancing is usually a social activity, which is also important for older people. I love all my fellow dancers in our group of about a dozen, and some are now among my closest friends.

But how about the brain? Does dancing really make you smarter, as some research seems to suggest?*

I began dancing at the age of 66, and I’ve been reflecting on certain cognitive changes that I can attribute largely to dancing. So consider me a walking, talking, fully subjective before-and-after case study.

Three cognitive skills have become much sharper: orientation, proprioception and kinaesthetic learning. I know: I was there. For my first four or five years I blundered around the floor in utter confusion. But eventually the truth emerged: yes, even at a mature age, even with an incompetent driver, my brain was capable of benefiting.

Alas, I still give myself a Fail for focus, on which everything else depends. I understand that concentration does tend to get more difficult with age. But the other three areas of my dancing brain have improved so much that I will not give up.


Orientation: much improved

In the everyday world, I’m pretty good at knowing north/south/east and west. Provided you remain in the same hemisphere, sensing the compass points is not too difficult (hint: look for the sun).

But in a dance studio, orientation is not so simple. You’re whizzing around all over the floor, changing directions, spinning, turning left, right and upside down, told to face upstage or downstage or left or right or this corner or that corner, and you’re surrounded by other rapidly moving dancers. For the first few years, yes, years, I was constantly confused about orientation.

My sense of helpless confusion has passed. If at times I do get confused about orientation, I get it sorted pretty quickly.

Proprioception: a new era of awareness

It’s hard enough to pronounce this word, let alone actually do it. Proprioception is the sense of where each part of your own body is in space. Precisely where are your feet, your legs, your hands, your arms, your back, your head at this moment? At what angle is each leg, each arm?

Maybe I needed this skill more than most. I used to live in my head. I functioned OK, but I had hardly any awareness of my body. I was aware of my busy little brain going 90 miles an hour, but as for my body, it was a kind of blur that came along for the ride. It was attached to my neck, but what it was doing—who knew?

Without good proprioception, you would never learn any choreography—your body would always be doing its own thing. You have to know how a certain position feels in your body: you can’t keep checking up, glancing at your limbs while you dance.

Happily, my propriocentric awareness has rocketed.

Kinaesthetic learning: damn fine

I learn so much faster now than before. Only a few years ago I would spend the whole rehearsal blundering from one move to another, copying the other dancers, thinking step by step in a dislocated juddering sequence of events.  Bend this bit,  flick that bit, right foot first, triplet, stop, run, stretch right… And I would use every memory aid I could concoct. Drawings. Diagrams. Videos. Narratives. Lists.

In those early years, learning choreography was horribly slow and horribly painful. Even when I could remember the moves, I was never really dancing. Still, by the time we performed I could stumble through my stuff more or less in the right place most of the time.

To be fair, learning new dances is pretty demanding on the brain. You’re watching and listening, and integrating oral instructions with your body, the music, other dancers and the geography of the dance floor. It’s not easy, which is why I like it.

Let me be blunt. I will never learn at a fraction of a young person’s pace. We all notice that. But when I compare my 75-year-old self with my 66-year-old self, the difference startles me. My muscle memory is stronger, and sometimes I even get that magical sense of flow.


Focus: must try harder

The one cognitive skill that I’m not happy with is my ability to focus.

It’s embarrassing to realise that I often look as if I don’t know the dance—but I do know the dance! I’ve just lost my focus temporarily.

In rehearsal, loss of focus is a nuisance and slows learning down. On stage, loss of focus can be a disaster.

Admittedly, it’s more difficult dancing in performance. The space is completely different, the lights are bright, you have to dodge obstacles, the auditorium is pitch black, and tension is high.

One night during our last season, I performed a brief involuntary solo. Inside, I was mortified, but I bluffed my way back to the gang. The stage was very busy at that point with at least 20 dancers in action, so I pretend that nobody noticed.

Update 2019: New age-related changes at 79

Four older women in a thoughtful dance pose on stage

Crows Feet mature dancers in Crones

Thus at 75 I gave myself a 75% pass, which left room for cognitive improvement in the last 25% of my life. That’s great, because my motto is Don’t peak too soon.

At the time my biggest challenge was to focus on the dance consistently. In other words, to be mindful while dancing. To notice when my mind wandered and bring it back to the task at hand… and not to be too hard on myself.

Lately I am adapting to two changes in my ability. First, I tend to get dizzy, which means occasionally I need to freeze (gracefully I hope!) while others are spinning or whizzing up and down. Secondly, no doubt about this, my short term memory means I have to work harder at learning.

The joy of dancing is immense. I want to carry on learning and growing and stretching myself body and mind and soul until I drop. And I don’t want to disappoint myself or my fellow dancers, who are all dear to me. For all these reasons, I will do my very best at all times.


Articles about the health benefits of dancing for older people

Image from The antique Greek dance, after sculptured and painted figures (1916) Emmanuel, Maurice. In the public domain.

12 thoughts on “How dancing has improved the function of an aging brain

  1. What a great name for your dance group. I agree that dancing is good in so many areas. I danced from a very early age but gave it up in my mid-years. Finally resumed both tap and ballet in my 60’s and 70’s. It is not only wonderful exercise, but helps the memory as well. Had to quit after my accident, but still have my shoes!

    1. I can tell you know the joy of dancing, which is a joy of many dimensions. How maddening that you eventually had to stop. A friend of mine has taught dancing in a rest home, and from her I discover that it’s possible to dance with only one’s head, or eyes, or thumbs — while I’m still leaping about, this gives me hope for the far future. I imagine that you still dance with your face and head and every breath you take, judging by your avatar.

  2. PS Our dance group is currently performing a new show, 2017: C is for Climate Change. But you’ll have to be in Wellington, New Zealand, to catch it next weekend.

  3. Robyn Haynes says:

    Rachel, you amaze me. I learned ballet as a child and always thought I was coordinated. Someone switched my body when I wasn’t looking!

  4. Ballet is pretty strange and demanding. But I was glad I had my one year learning it as a child, because dance tutors in contemporary dance (and other disciplines) refer to the language of ballet. It’s a great basis, and sometimes we do ballet warm-ups at Crows Feet. I think that coordinated ballet-body is just sleeping, not absent.

  5. joared says:

    I had several,years of tap when I was young, but had to give it up. I never had the opportunity to dance after that except for one class I took in college — strictly social dancing. I dance in my head when I hear certain music — thoroughly enjoy all forms of dance. Dance is it’s own language that can be a therapy tool for expression.

    1. I have always adored tap but so far, it’s a foreign country. Keep on dancing in your head!

  6. Any research on the benefits of idiot dancing? 😉

    1. Um not to my knowledge. But it’s gotta be good for you.

      1. Great – I’ll carry on, then! 🙂

  7. Inspirational. I have to take the dance class. I just performed in one of the function with my friends and I see lot of scope of improvements in me.

    1. Rachel McAlpine says:

      Terrific! Have fun.

%d bloggers like this: